.ACTIONABLE CLAIM: It means a claim to any debt other than a debt secured by mortgage of immovable property or by hypothecation or pledge of movable property, or to any beneficial interest in movable property not in the possession, either actual or constructive, of the claimant, which the civil courts recognize as affording grounds for relief, whether such debt or beneficial interest be existent, accruing, conditional or contingent.
02. ACTUARY: An employee of an insurance company or similar institution who is qualified and deals with life expectancy, and the average proportion of losses by time and other accidents.
03. ADVERSE SELECTION: It refers to situations, typically in credit market, in which higher rates of interest, the relatively safer borrowers drop out of the credit market and borrowers with higher risks undertake investment activity leading to deterioration of the quality of the bank’s portfolios.
04. ADJUSTABLE PEG: An exchange rate system where a country’s exchange rate is “pegged” in relation to another currency. The official rate may be changed from time to time.
05. AMERICAN OPTION: An option which may be exercised at any valid business date through out the life of the option.
06. ANTE DATE: The placing of the date on a document prior to that on which it is signed. A bill of exchange/cheque is not invalid by reason of it being ante dated.
07. ANNUITY: A payment made by an Insurance company to a person who has paid in a lump sum or has in some other way purchased an annuity so that he/she may receive at regular intervals a sum of money.
08. APPROPRIATION BILL: It is presented to Parliament for approval, so that the government can withdraw from the Consolidated Fund the amounts required for meeting the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund. No amount can be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund till the appropriation bill is voted and enacted.
09. ARBITRAGE: A risk-free type of trading where the same instrument is bought and sold simultaneously in two different markets in order to cash in on the difference in these markets.
10. ASK PRICE: It is the lowest price acceptable to the buyer
11. AT BEST: An instruction given to a dealer to buy or sell at the best rate that is currently available in the market
12. AT CALL: This describes a deposit by a bank or financial institution with the money market (discount house) on condition that the funds are repayable on demand.
13. AT PAR FORWARD SPREAD: When the forward price is equivalent to the spot price
14. AT THE PRICE STOP-LOSS ORDER: A stop loss order that must be executed at the requested level regardless of market conditions
15. AVERAGE RATE OPTION: A contract where the exercise price is based on the difference between the strike price and the average spot rate over the contract period. Sometimes called an “Asian Option”
16. BACK END LOAD: A fee charged by a Mutual Fund from the unitholders at the time of redemption of units
17. BALANCE OF PAYMENTS: The balance of all financial exchanges between one country and the rest of the world, made up of visible and invisible trade (the current account) and capital movements (capital account)
18. BALANCE OF TRADE: The balance of trade is the difference between the value of a nation’s exports (goods sold) and the value of its imports (goods purchased). It is an important component of the balance of payment.
19. BANKEX: An index comprising of key banking stocks on Bombay Stock Exchange – BSE
20. BARTER: The exchange of goods for goods; to give (anything but money) in exchange for some other commodity. It is a characteristic of a primitive community, but today barter is accepted on an international scale to facilitate trading with countries of Eastern block and others which are short of hard, convertible currencies.
21. BEAR: A person who believes that prices will decline
22. BEAR MARKET: A market in which prices decline sharply against a background of widespread pessimism (opposite to bull market)
23. BANK GIRO: It is merely a name given for the transfer of credits between banks. It covers the transfers of such items as Hire Purchase Debts, rent payments, etc. Such items are passed through the credit clearing system and balance are settled between banks in the usual way.
24. BENEFICIAL OWNER: A person entitled to the benefits of any property of which the legal title rests with a trustee
25. BID PRICE: Bid is the highest price that the seller is offering for the particular currency at the moment; the difference between the ask and the bid price is the spread. Together, the two prices constitute a quotation; the difference between the two is the spread. The bid-ask spread is stated as a percentage cost of transacting in the foreign currency.
26. BLUE CHIP: Originally “blue chip” was a gambling term, chips with the highest value being coloured blue. Over the years, however, the term has been acceptedas denoting the ordinary shares of the highest class of company.
27. BREAKEVEN ANALYSIS: The presentation of information either by a chart or statement of figures showing the management at what point the amount or volume of sales need to be in order to equal the sum of fixed and variable costs. That is the point where neither a loss nor a profit is made on trading.
28. BTQ: It is the maximum entitlement in cash and travellers’cheques that is allowed to be taken to a foreign country
29. BULL: A speculator on the Stock Exchange who anticipates a rise in the value of a certain security and therefore buys such stocks, not intending to pay for the purchase, but hoping to sell them later, at a profit, before the settlement date.
30. CALL: It is an option that gives the holder the right to buy the underlying instrument at a specified price during a fixed period.