Saturday, April 13, 2013


Human resources management

01. The number of measures employed by banks to face the competition with other players in the market are:
·         Core banking solutions
·         Business process outsourcing
·         VRS to its employees
·         Training to staff
·         Retraining to staff
·         Lateral recruitment of specialists
·         Emphasis on marketing
·         Advertising
·         Customer relationship management
·         Improving the brand image
·         Diversification of activities
·         Introduction of electronic based multiple service channels
·         Setting up of back offices
·         Setting up of data centres
·         Business process outsourcing to improve the operational efficiency
·         Meeting customer expectations
·         Reduction in operation costs
Human resources development

02. The main focus of HRD to help the employees are:
·         Acquire the capabilities or sharpen the capabilities of employees towards performing their roles in a better manner
·         Develop their general capabilities as individuals
·         Enable them to discover and exploit their own inner potentials
·         Develop an organizational culture
03. The specific goals of HRD are to develop the
·         Capabilities of each employee as an individual
·         Capabilities of each individual in relation to his or her present role
·         Capabilities of each employee in relation to his or her expected future roles
·         Dyadic relationship between each employee and his or her supervisor
·         Team spirit and functioning in every organizational unit – department, group etc
·         Collaboration among the different units of the organization
·         Organisation’s overall health and self renewing capabilities which in turn increases the enabling capabilities of individuals, dyads teams and the entire organization
04. The typical systems developed towards enhancement of the HRD goals are:
·         Training and development
·         Performance appraisal
·         Feedback and counseling
·         Potential appraisal, career planning and counseling
·         Organisation development
·         Human Resources Development
05. The sub systems of human resources management are:
·         Administration
·         Development
·         Maintenance
Job, work, role, position

06. The job analysis consists of three parts
·         Job description
·         Job specification
·         Job evaluation
07. Job description is about the job that an employee has to perform
08. Job specification relates to the requirements in terms of educational qualification, age, experience etc
09. Job evaluation relates to the comparison between similar jobs within the organization or between organizations or within the industry
10. The task is the basic element of job
11. The job is a complex system of tasks an individual has to perform
12. The position puts an individual in a hierarchical pattern
13. Role emphasizes on the pattern of expectations
14. Work involves a more complex pattern as it goes a step further
Training in an organisation

15. The training and development involves the following:
·         Identification of training needs
·         Conducting the training
·         Evaluation of training
·         Selection and development of trainers
16. Training is the learning related to the present job
17. Education is for learning to prepare the individual for a different but identified job
18. Development is learning for growth of the individual not related to a specific present of future job
19. Knowles explained the following three theories:
·         Mechanistic theory
·         Cognitive theory
·         Organismic theory
20. The theories associated with the actual teaching are:
·         Learning in employees in enhanced when the learner is motivated
·         Learning requires feedback
·         Reinforcement increases the likelihood that a learned behavior will be repeated
·         Learning must be transferable to the job
21. For senior management, the training could relate to development of vision, entrepreneurship and business strategy
22. Training needs analysis can be termed as formal or informal
23. Any training plan is expected to specify the following:
·         Number of training programs to be conducted – internal and external
·         Level of employees – what will be the coverage of employees through the plan
·         The subject areas which are to be highlighted
·         The left out plan meant for the future
·         The plan for allocation of resources
·         The contingencies to be worked out
·         The arrangements to be made to accommodate something that emerges beyond the plan
24. The logical process for conducting any training program is
·         Training needs analysis
·         Preparation of a training plan
·         Conduct of the training which includes designing the program in terms of the time, duration, target group, sequence of inputs and methodology
·         Evaluation of the training programs and the plan
·         Selection and development of trainers
24. The teaching methodology in the training program includes the following
·         Readings
·         Lecturing
·         Experimental lectures
·         Discussion
·         Participative training
·         Case studies
·         Role plays
·         Instrumentations
·         Simulation games
·         Structured experiences
·         Intensive small groups
·         Intensive growth groups
25. The evaluation of training consists of the following:
·         Reaction level
·         Learning level
·         The behavior level
·         Functioning level

26. Attitude is termed as the mental inclination towards any issue
27. Attitude can be classified into three basic components namely:
·         Emotional
·         Informational
·         Behavioural
28. Attitude serves four important functions in the process and they are:
·         The adjustment function
·         The ego defensive function
·         The value expression function
·         The knowledge function
28. Attitude is concerned with
·         Direction  towards some objects about which a person has feelings and beliefs
·         It does not have any impact on the emotions of any person
·         Attitudes of employees have significant impact on their work performance
·         It is formed based on the facts and objective criteria
·         Attitude change is not possible for most of the people
·         There are ways in which the barriers can be overcome and attitudes can be changed

29. The lifestages of an employee can be classified into the following:
·         Childhood
·         Adolescence
·         Young adulthood
·         Adulthood
·         Maturity
30. The four career roles that can be labeled are:
·         Apprentice
·         Colleague
·         Mentor
·         Sponsor
31. Career patterns have three dimensional movements
·         Vertical
·         Circumferential
·         Radial
32. Career anchors can be classified into the following:
·         Technical/functional competence
·         Managerial competence
·         Security
·         Creativity
·         Autonomy
Self development

33. Self development refers to developing a mature personality who can handle different tasks and situations with comparative ease
34. The primary importance at the personal level is the process of self awareness
35. The prerequisite for introspection and learning is to understand the fundamentals of human behavior
36. Self development happens at the following levels:
·         Individual level
·         Interpersonal level
·         Group level
37. Individual level refers to
·         Motivational pattern
·         Locus of control
·         Power bases
38. Interpersonal level refers to
·         Interpersonal needs
·         Transactional analysis
39. Group level refers to being effective member in the work group
Motivational level
40. The motivational pattern of an employee depends on the following:
·         Educated parents
·         Knowledge of computer related frauds
·         Educated friends
·         Educated with technical background
·         Computer savvy
·         Use of technology like mobile phones, internet etc
·         Willing to buy car, house when young
·         Have credit cards for spending money
·         Change in jobs easily and quickly
·         Better exposure to outside world through different work positions
41. The personality of an individual comprises of collection of behavior patterns developed over a period of time
42. The three ego states of any individual are:
·         Parent
·         Adult
·         Child
Swot analysis

43. A team is called as
·         the group of people with high degree of interdependence
·         geared towards the achievement of a goal or the completion of a task
44. Group dynamics was coined during 1930 by Kurt Lewin
45. Group dynamics refers to:
·         internal nature of groups
·         how they form
·         their structure and processes
·         how they function
·         how they affect the individuals and organization
46. The different stages in group formation and group behavior are:
·         forming(awareness)
·         storming(conflict)
·         norming(cooperation)
·         conforming(adjustment)
·         performing(productivity)
47. Swot analysis refers to
·         strength
·         weakness
·         opportunity
·         threat
48. Swot anaylisis concept was defined by Johari Window
49. Johari window consists of the following
·         arena
·         blind
·         closed
·         dark
50. The five components of emotional intelligence are:
·         self awareness
·         self regulation
·         self motivation
·         empathy
·         social skills
Self management

51. Self management consists of the following:
·         Self awareness which includes the ability to recognize one’s emotions and their effects
·         Self regulation includes self control
·         Self motivation includes achievement
·         Empathy signifies understanding others
52. The employee morale boosters are:
·         Welcome ideas
·         Keep score
·         Inspect
·         Thank you notes
·         Huddle
·         Opening up
·         Having fun
·         Showing charity
·         Adding perks
·         Firing staff and measuring it
53. The behavior of an individual is influenced by four factors namely:
·         Environmental factor,
·         Personal factor
·         Organizational factor
·         Psychological factor
54. Environmental factor consists of
·         Economic values
·         social (norms and cultural) values
·         political values
55. Personal factors consist of
·         age
·         sex
·         education
·         abilities
·         marital status
·         number of dependants
56. Organisational factors consist of
·         physical facilities
·         organization structure and design
·         leadership
·         compensation
·         reward system
57. Psychological factors consist of
·         personality
·         perception
·         attitude
·         value and learning
58. Every person is in certain respects
·         like all other persons
·         like some other persons
·         like no other person
59. A person’s state of mind is based upon the following:
·         trust vs mistrust
·         autonomy vs shame and doubt
·         initiative vs guilt
·         industry vs inferiority
·         identify vs role diffusion
·         intimacy vs isolation
·         growth vs stagnation
·         integrity vs despair
60. There are two behavior types
·         type A
·         type B
61. Type A behavior is generally
·         restless
·         impatient with desire for quick achievement
·         perfectionalism
62. Type B personality are much more
·         easy going
·         relaxed about time pressure
·         less competitive
·         more philosophical in nature
63. The left hemisphere controls the right  side of the body namely:
·         speech – verbal
·         logical – mathematical
·         liner – detailed
·         sequential
·         controlled
·         intellectual
·         dominant
64. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body namely:
·         spatial- musical
·         holistic
·         artistic – symbolic
·         simultaneous
·         emotional
·         intuitive
·         creative
·         minor
65. The six personality characteristics are:
·         realistic
·         investigative
·         social
·         conventional
·         enterprising
·         artistic

66. Motivation is the extent of willingness of an employee to respond to the organizational requirements
67. Motivation has direct impact on the job performance of individuals
68. The various theories of motivation are:
·         scientific management or rational view
·         human relations model
·         Maslow’s need and hierarchy theory
·         Frederick er  H Herzberg’s two factor theory
·         Clayton Alderfer’s ERG theory
·         Achievement motivation theory
·         Reinforcement theory
69. Maslow’s theory defines the following:
·         Psychological needs
·         Safety/security needs
·         Social needs
·         Self esteem needs
·         Self actualization needs
70. Psychological needs deal
·         Food
·         Drink
·         Shelter
·         Oxygen
·         Sleep
·         Sex
·         Weather etc
71. Safety and security needs relate to
·         Job security
·         Salary increase
·         Working conditions
·         Unionism
·         Protective legislation
72. Social needs express the desire to belonging and affection in a social context
73. Self esteem needs for self respect and recognition
74. Self actualization needs correlate to the desire for
·         Excelling in one’s job
·         Advancing an important idea
·         Successfully managing the unit and like
75. Motivational factors are related to the job itself
76. Motivational factors according to Herzberg:
·         Recognition
·         Advancement
·         Responsibility
·         Achievement
·         Possibility of growth
·         Work itself
77. Hygiene and maintenance factors are related to environment outside the job
78. Motivational factors are:
·         Company policy and administration
·         Technical supervision
·         Interpersonal relations with subordinates
·         Salary
·         Job security
·         Personal life
·         Working conditions
·         Status
·         Interpersonal relations with supervisors
·         Interpersonal relations with peers/colleagues

Role clarity

79. Role and position are two sides of the same coin
80. Role means a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in social unit
81. The concept of role is central to an organization
82. The important aspects of role are the following namely:
·         Role stagnation
·         Inter role distance
·         Role set conflicts
·         Role ambiguity
·         Role expectation conflict
·         Role overload
·         Role erosion
·         Resource inadequacy
·         Personal inadequacy
·         Role isolation

83. The content of the climate surveys vary from one organization to another organization
84. The coverage of typical survey are:
·         Structure
·         Responsibility
·         Reward
·         Risk
·         Warmth
·         Support
·         Standards
·         Conflict
·         Identity

85. The jobs are classified into four types namely:
·         Top management
·         Middle Management
·         Junior Management
·         Supervisory management
·         Clerical or administration
·         Unskilled
·         Semi skilled
·         Skilled
·         Highly skilled

86. The factors on which the compensation gets decided are:
·         Company objectives
·         Market situation
·         Prevailing market rate
·         Internal and external pressures
87. According to the committee on fair wages certain wage concepts are:
·         Minimum wage
·         Living wages
·         Fair wages
·         Need based minimum wages
88. The wages are protected by:
·         The payment of wages act 1936
·         The minimum wages act 1948
·         The payment of bonus act 1965
·         Equal remuneration act 1976
Performance appraisal
89. Performance appraisal is a process by which the management finds out how effective it has been hiring and placing the employees
90. The performance appraisal plans meet three needs namely:
·         Judgmental
·         Developmental
·         Counseling by the superior
91. Judgmental appraisal for salary increases, transfers and promotions
92. Developmental appraisal is for telling an employee as to how is performing and suggesting changes in skills, attitudes and behavior for improvement
93. Counselling by the supervisor – for giving the feedback and understanding the problems for poor performance
94. The overall objective of the performance appraisal is to improve the efficiency of the organization
95. The following are the uses of performance appraisal system:
·         It rates all the employees in a unified manner by using the same rating scales and thus making them comparable on a common footing
·         It provides information which could be critical while deciding on promotion, pay increases, transfers and training etc
·         It provides information about the areas of weaknesses of the employee in order to enable initiation of corrective steps
·         It improves the quality of supervision as the supervisor becomes a keen observer
·         The system, if implemented with openness and trust, ensures better interpersonal relations between the employee and his supervisor
96. The performance appraisal has following the traditional methods namely:
·         Free form essay method
·         Straight ranking method
·         Comparison method
·         Grading method
·         Graphic or linear rating scales
·         Forced choice description method
·         Forced distribution method
·         Group appraisal method
97. The modern methods of performance appraisal system are as detailed below:
·         Assessment center workshops
·         Management by objectives
·         Human asset accounting method
·         Behaviourally anchored rating scales
·         360 degree appraisal method
Management by objectives
98. MBO means management by objectives
99. MBO attempts to minimize the external controls and emphasizes on the motivation levels of the employees
100. The following are various MBO processes:
·         The organizational goals are first set and are clearly stated in measurable targets
·         The goals are to be realistic and achievable although challenging
·         The goal setting process is a joint process
·         The short term performance goals are set jointly by the employees and their superiors
·         There are frequent reviews of performance through one to one meetings
·         Sharing of feedback in such meetings helps in altering the course of action, if required
·         It acts as a motivating factor as one gets to know where he stands through the feedback session
101. MBO process relates to
·         Setting goals
·         Exchanging feedback
·         Seeking participation of employees
102. The advantages of MBO are:
·         It involves participative approach in goal setting
·         It enhances the motivational levels of the employees
·         It creates an atmosphere of competition within the organization for enhanced performance
·         It provides objective appraisal method
·         Problems can be identified in the early stages through reviews and feedback sessions
·         It is an effective tool for identifying the training and development needs
103. The disadvantages of MBO are
·         It may lead to unhealthy competition amongst the employees
·         It may create a conflicting situation when it comes to goal setting
·         Sometimes, very soft targets are set to show higher performance achievement

104. The advantages of e-learning are:
·         It enables learner to study at his convenient time and place and have privacy
·         Enables him to study at his own place
·         Can offer high level inter action with immediate feedback and provide opportunity to check his understanding
·         Can be simulated to real life situation
·         Can be cost effective depending upon its use
105. The disadvantages of e-learning are:
·         Relatively inflexible depending on the pre produced programme
·         Requires greater self discipline and commitment by the learner
·         May induce a sense of isolation
·         Does not permit personal reinforcement and therefore the motivational effects are forgone
106. “The landmarks of tomorrow” was written by Peter F Drucker – famous management guru.


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