Saturday, November 17, 2012

RAPID READING EXERCISE- PART: 002 - IBPS BANK EXAMINATIONS






COMPUTER TERMINOLOGY  
01. Access:    To store or retrieve data

02. Add-on:    Circuits, systems, or hardware devices that can be attached to a computer to increase its memory or improve its performance

03. Application: A system, such as a payroll, that has been defined to be suitable for electronic data processing techniques

04. Archived file: A file that has been transferred to a lower level in the memory hierarchy, usually from magnetic disc to magnetic tape, may be as a result of operations of appropriate resource management

05. Array: A group of two or more logically related elements identified by a single name; generally stored in consecutive storage locations in main memory

06. Audit trail: A permanent record of every transaction taken by a computer system, indicating for example, when users log in and out, what transaction they perform, when files are accessed and the type of access. Examination of this record provides a way of observing patterns of security violation and/or serves as a deterrent to violations

07. Availability: The ratio of time a device is operating correctly to the total scheduled time for operating

08. Back office operations: Operation that does not involve direct interaction with customers

09. Back up:   A resource that is, or can be used as a substitute when a primary resource fails or when a file has been corrupted

10. Bar code:  A printed machine readable code that consists of parallel bars of varied width and spacing. The application most commonly observed is the coding on food and goods that is read at the checkout and translated into a line of print on the bill showing product and cost

11. Batch processing: A method of organizing work for a computer system, designed to reduce overheads by grouping together similar jobs

12. Bit: Contraction of binary digit

13. Bug: An error or mistake in a programme

14. Byte: A group of consecutive bits forming a unit of storage in the computer and used to represent one alphanumeric character; a byte usually consists of 8 bits but may contain more a fewer bits depending on the model of computer

15. Character: An alphabetic letter, a digit or a special symbol

16. Chip: A small section of a single crystal of semiconductor usually silicon, that forms the substrate upon which is fabricated a single semiconductor device or all the individual devices comprising an integrated circuit

17. Configuration: The particular hardware elements and their interconnection in a computer system for a particular period of operation

18. Debug: To trace and correct errors in programming code or hardware malfunctions in a computer system

19. Downtime: The percentage of time that a computer system is not available for use

20. Dummy: An artificial instruction, address etc. used only to fulfill specification in a programme but not actually performing a function

21. Duplex channel: A communication channel that allows data to be transmitted in both directions simultaneously

22, Encoder: A small table-top electronic machine which is a combination of electronic typewriter and calculator – functions: encode numeric data in the MICR in desired font; print a listing of amounts of all instructions with batch/grand totals; zero-proofing place clearing endorsement, stamp on the reverse of instruments

23. Image: A copy in memory of data that exists elsewhere

24. Interface: A common boundary between two systems, devices or programmes

25. Lock: A key or other group of characters that allows access to specified storage locations or software systems

26. Log-in: To enter the necessary information like personal identification number – PIN and/or password to begin a session on a terminal

27. Menu: The list of options may be displayed with a sign code opposite each. The selection may then be made by keying the single code. The method provides simple way of guiding a user through a complex situation by presenting a sequence of simpler decisions

28. Main memory: Storage located in the computer for programmes, along with their data, while they are being executed

29. MICR: Abbreviation for magnetic ink character recognition. A process in which data printed in ink containing ferromagnetic particles is read by magnetic read heads

30. Modem: Acronym for modulator demodulator – a device that converts digital data output from another device into analog data that can be transmitted over communication lines or vice versa.

31. OCR: Abbreviation for Optical Character Recognition

32.Output device: A device that can provide for only the output of data, such as a printer or card punch

33.Password: A group of characters by which a user is uniquely identified, when logging on to a terminal or when submitting a programme for execution

34. Real Time: The time that passes on an ordinary clock

35. Scan: To examine sequentially all the records in a file in order to find those whose keys meet a specified criterion

36. Soft Copy:  Output that is displayed on the screen of a video display unit

37. SWIFT: Society for Worldwide Inter-bank Financial Telecommunication

38. VDU: Abbreviation for Visual Display Unit

39. Bandwidth: How much stuff you can send through a connection. Usually measured in bits per second

40.Beta: Preliminary or testing stage of a software or hardware product: “a beta version”; “beta software”

41. BIOS: Stands for Basic Input/Output system: The BIOS is responsible for booting the computer by providing a basic set of instructions

42. Binary: This is a basic system of numbering using ones and zeros

43. Blue tooth: Radio technology that connects electronic devices without using a cable. Data and voice can be exchanged at ranges of up to 10 meters without the need for devices to be lined up together

44. Boot disk: A diskette from which you can boot your computer

45. Buffer: A place, especially in RAM, for the temporary storage of data for the purpose of speeding up an operation such as printing or disk access

46. Browser: It is a software used for viewing pages on the web

47. Bus: A collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of a computer to another

48. Catche: A special block of fast memory used for temporary storage of data for quick retrieval

49. CD-ROM: Compact Disc Read Only Memory – an optical storage medium that can hold about 700 MB of data and is accessed with lasers

50. CGA: Stands for Color Graphics Adapter: CGA allowed a maximum of four colours at a resolution of 320 x 200 or two colours at 640 x 200.

51. Clock Speed: The clock speed is the frequency which determines how fast devices that are connected to the system bus operate. The speed is measured in millions of cycles per second

52. Clustering: A technique in which two or more servers are interconnected and can access a common storage pool

53. CMOS: Abbreviation of complementary metal oxide semiconductor. Pronounced seemoss; CMOS is widely used type of semiconductor

54. COBOL: Common Business Oriented Language

55. CPU: Central Processing Unit – It interprets and carries out instructions, performs numeric computations, and controls the peripherals connected to it

56. Data bus: A group of parallel conductors found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer.

57. Data mining: Sorting through data to identify patterns and establish relationships

58. DDR: Stands for “Double Data Rate”

59. Decoder: A circuit or device that restores a coded signal to its original form based on knowledge of the process used to code the signal

60. Decryption: It is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form, so that it can be understood

61. Dedicated line: It is a phone line meant specifically for one thing, like being attached to a computer

62. Demodulation: It is the process of converting analog information into digital information

63. DLL: Dynamic Link Library

64. DNS: Domain Name Server – it is the system used on the internet for maping names to the actual numerical addresses of machines on the Internet

65. DOS:  Disc Operating System

66. Domain name:  A name that identifies one or more IP addresses

67. Driver: A program that controls a device. Every device, whether it can be a printer, disk drive, or keyboard must have one driver program

68. EBCDIC: Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code

69. Email: Stands for electronic mail. It is a system of relaying messages across the Internet from one internet user to another

70. Encryption: It is the process of converting data into “unreadable code” so that unauthorized people cannot understand the contents

71. Ethernet: A networking system that enables high speed data communication over coaxial cables

72. Executable file: A file in a format that the computer can directly execute

73. FAQ: Frequently asked questions

74. GUI: Graphical User Interface

75. FTP: File transfer protocol

76. HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language

77. HTTP: Stands for Hyper Text Transport Protocol

78. Icon: A small video display that acts as an activation link when clicked on

79. ISP: Internet service provider

80. ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network

81. Java: A high level programming language developed by Sun Microsystems

82. LAN: a computer network that spans a relatively small area

82. LCD: Abbreviation of liquid crystal display, a type of display used in digital watches and many portable computers

83. Linux: A version of UNIX that runs on a variety of hardware platforms. It is open source software, which is freely available

84. Kilobyte: This is about thousand bytes of space. It is two to the 10th power of 1024 bytes

85. MPEG: Motion Picture Experts Group

86. Peer to Peer: A type of network in which each workstation has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities

87. Pen drive: A small device that can be used to easily transfer files between USB-compatible systems

88. Processor: A processor is a device that processes programmed instructions and performs tasks

89. RAM: Random Access Memory

90. ROM: Read Only Memory

91. Serial Port: A port or interface that can be used for serial communication, in which only 1 bit is transmitted at a time

92. SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

93. Spam: This is to transmit unwanted messages, usually over email, to a great many people

94. SLIP: Serial Line Interface Protocol

95. Switch: In networks, a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments. LANs that use switches to join segments are called switched LANs or, in the case of Ethernet networks, switched Ethernet LANs

96. WWW: World Wide Web

97. Virus: A program or piece of code that is loaded into the computer without the knowledge of the computer user and runs against the wishes of the user

98. WAN: Wide Area Network

99. Weblog: This is publicly accessible personal journal for an individual. Similar to a personal diary, but shared over the web.  The activity of updating a blog is “blogging” and someone who keeps a blog is called as a “blogger”

100.ZIP: Stands for Zone Information Protocol. This is an application that allows for the compression of application files


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